How can you prepare students for their exams?
Why do students forget? And what can we do to help them remember? As exam season looms, these questions are likely at the forefront of many teachers’ minds.
In his blog, ‘Deliberately difficult – why it’s better to make learning harder‘, David Didau asks which of these study patterns is most likely to result in long-term learning:
- study study study study – test
- study study study test – test
- study study test test – test
- study test test test – test
He says, “The most successful pattern is in fact No. 4. Having just one study session, followed by three short testing sessions – and then a final assessment – will out perform any other pattern.”
Traditionally, schemes of work and curricula have been designed according to study pattern one but there is evidence to suggest a rethink.
As teachers, we often complain that after an apparently successful lesson, series of lessons and/or assessment, students have forgotten content (how many times have you felt frustrated at a year 10 student’s apparent inability to use capital letter?) Dylan William attributes this forgetting to a lack of extended practice, overlearning, testing and revisiting.
Robert and Elizabeth Bjork makes similar suggestions:
- Information that is presented repeatedly over spaced intervals is learned much better than information that is repeated without intervals.
- Students learn content better when it is interleaved with other content.
- Retrieval practice is most effective in transferring learning to long-term memory.
5 ways to make knowledge stick
Bearing this important evidence in mind, here are 5 ideas for ‘making knowledge stick’ and effective revision tips in the run-up to exam season.
1. Knowledge organisers
Organise the key knowledge you want students to know into a table which they have throughout the scheme. You can use this resource as a template. This is used to test, set homework and self-quiz which brings me to…
Using the knowledge organiser, students read, cover, regurgitate and then check their answers for homework knowing they will be tested on this knowledge and that teachers will check for evidence of self-quizzing. They add any missed information in a different colour pen to show where the gaps in their knowledge are (cheeky bonus = no marking required!)
What I really love about this one is that it get a students into good revision habits from year 7 – no longer do I hear the ‘You can’t really revise for English’ excuse!
3. Low-stakes testing
Starter quizzes, cloze activities and cold-call questioning are great ways to test students’ knowledge without the pressure of grades and formal assessment (again, marking-free my friends!)
4. Memory platform
A fantastic form of low-stakes testing created by Andy Tharby.
Questions one-three test last lesson’s learning, question four tests last week’s learning, question five tests last term’s learning and question six links last term to last lesson (this really challenges them to have mastered the content and often elicits some very creative responses!) This activity is a great way to interleave content. There is a downloadable example here.
5. Choral response
Students chant back to you key information such as a spelling mnemonic, a phrase in French or the definition of a mathematical term. Students at all ability levels are empowered by this learning of knowledge particularly as the progress is so tangible for them.
Using these techniques both in class and at home means they are well prepared (and confident too) entering the exam hall this summer. The fact that many of them are also low input in terms of planning and marking too at this stressful time of year is purely coincidental!