This is a blog about teaching pedagogy; and psychologist Jean Piaget.
“Tolerate younger students asking ‘why?’ Provide older students with opportunities to make decisions.”
When I trained as a teacher in the 1990s, as part of the 4-year course to secure my BAEd and QTS qualifications, I studied the theory and history of education. This included the Education Acts on 1944 and 1988, as well as child development, psychology and teacher pedagogy to name a few.
A small part of the knowledge of education regulations that we mused over, to attain my final degree in education, the knowledge included;
- understand learners and the learning process in the context of formal education, including psychological, cultural, ethical and philosophical perspectives; to critically reflect on teaching practices, including their own; and in consequence to operate as an effective and professional educator.
- to understand and to operate responsibly as a designer and technologist in social, cultural, economic, political and environmental contexts employing a range of appropriate skills and practices of the designer-maker.
- to exploit a range of transferable skills (such as research, communication, analytical, meta-cognitive and interpersonal skills) in order to play an active role in the profession on graduating and in the future, and to engage enthusiastically and effectively in life-long learning.
- to combine these understandings of design and technology, and of teaching and learning, in such a way that they operate effectively and responsibly in supporting the development of design and technology capability in eleven to eighteen year-old learners. This also included curriculum reform, design in society and education studies.
On reflection, I can see how this foundation has managed to help maintain a degree of resilience and stay stuck in the classroom for 20 years.
Over the years I’ve formed opinions about Jean Piaget, a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children, and also for Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky, a Soviet psychologist. There are of course many more, but both gentlemen stick …
The focus of this blog is on Piaget pedagogy.
Now, one may not associate Piaget with risk-taking and you may ask why I have included an association between them both: ‘risk’ with ‘Piaget’.
Jean Piaget was a psychologist known for his epistemological studies, primarily concerned with the nature of knowledge in children. His theory of cognitive development, or simply, the nature and development of human intelligence, indicated how humans come to gradually acquire, construct, and use knowledge.
So, how does this fit into my blog purpose, I hear you ask?
Piaget placed great importance on the education of children and was the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowledge. ‘Constructivism’ is about ‘how people learn.’ That understanding/acquiring knowledge has associations with theories of instruction. How students develop their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. For example, discovery, experiential, hands-on, project-based, collaborative and task-based learning are some of the applications that base teaching and learning on constructivism.
But most of all, how instruction is offered and delivered by the teacher.
From the viewpoint of a teacher, I would also include the ‘why?’ to help take ‘knowledge of learning’ to a deeper level of cognition.
I am no expert, but in a nutshell this is a useful reminder to us all during a busy time of the year; that use of knowledge (or constructivism) is constructed in children, when knowledge comes into contact with existing knowledge. Many have blogged about SOLO taxonomy to explain what I perceive as something quite similar. That this type of learning/learner can be resourceful, self-directed and innovative (and more) based on the building blocks/foundations of ‘how and why’ learning is sequenced.
Do not under-estimate the importance of prior knowledge; particularly with reference to ‘how‘ knowledge is applied. The purpose in education is to become creative and innovative through analysis, conceptualisations, and synthesis of prior experience to create new knowledge. And that the purpose of teaching and teachers, is to be able to impart knowledge with unequivocal confidence.
Take it Further?
I encourage you to provide ample opportunities for your students to acquire knowledge through traditional and progressive practice; practical activity, theory and/or experience. Throw away the textbook! Throw away the worksheet! Allow students to take a computer apart; break open a mechanical toy to see how the mechanical cogs fit together; de-construct the opening scene of MacBeth.
Whatever it is, encourage students to ask why and how and allow them to make their own decisions/draw conclusions.
A good starting point to consider, is how could you integrate acquiring knowledge without didactic teaching, text-book teaching; using a worksheet or a Powerpoint slide-show (one-size fits all) teaching? No matter how stressed and pushed for time you are, do all you can to find that ‘link between knowledge and discovery’ by providing ample hands-on experience.
You can read more here.